But other economists, including Gary Clyde Hufbauer and Cathleen Cimino-Isaacs of the Peterson Institute for International Economics (PIIE), have pointed out that increased trade is paying off the U.S. economy. Some jobs are lost because of imports, others are created and consumers benefit greatly from lower prices and often improved product quality. Your 2014 PIIE study on the impact of NAFTA revealed a net loss of about 15,000 jobs per year as a result of the pact – but gains of about $450,000 for each job lost, in the form of higher productivity and lower consumer prices. On the basis of NAFTA, the United States, Mexico and Canada agreed to cooperate in other forums on agricultural issues, improve transparency and hold consultations on trade-related issues between countries. The agreement between the United States of America, the United States of Mexico and Canada, commonly known as the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), is a free trade agreement between Canada, Mexico and the United States in lieu of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).    The agreement has been referred to as NAFTA 2.0 or „New ALEFTA, since many nafta provisions have been introduced and its amendments have been found to be largely incremental. On 1 July 2020, the USMCA came into force in all Member States. In early 2020, the U.S. Congress approved the USMCA with large bipartisan majorities in both chambers, and the agreement came into effect on July 1. Nevertheless, some critics have complained that the new rules of origin and minimum wage requirements are cumbersome and boil down to state-run exchanges.
Alden of CFR was blood pressure and said that the government could recognize the restoration of cross-party cooperation in U.S. trade policy. But he warns: „If this new mix of Trump nationalism and democratic progressivism is what it takes now to conclude trade agreements with the United States, there could be very few buyers.” The United States, Mexico and Canada have accepted non-discrimination and transparency obligations in sales and distribution, as well as labelling and certification provisions, to avoid technical barriers to trade in distilled wine and spirits. They agreed to continue to recognize bourbon whiskey, tennessee whiskey, tequila, mezcal and Canadian whiskey as distinctive products. NAFTA has three primary dispute resolution mechanisms. Chapter 20 is the settlement mechanism for countries. It is often considered the least controversial of the three mechanisms, and has been maintained in its original form from NAFTA to the USMCA. In such cases, complaints filed by USMCA Member States against the duration of the contract would be violated.  In Chapter 19, the justifications for anti-dumping or countervailing duties are managed. Without Chapter 19, the avenue of recourse for the management of these policies would be through the national legal system.
Chapter 19 provides that an USMCA body hears the case and acts as an international commercial tribunal to arbitrate the dispute.  The Trump administration has attempted to remove Chapter 19 of the new USMCA text, which until now existed in the agreement. Mexican politicians saw NAFTA as an opportunity to accelerate and block these hard-hit reforms in the Mexican economy.